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Sunday, July 26, 2009

冠詞口訣(第二次修訂):


a, an不定冠詞口訣

不定冠詞分子母,泛指某事物之一。

單數可數名詞前,可以表示其全類。


the定冠詞口訣

定冠提過人事物,也表整體或類別。

世上獨一無二事,階級黨派名詞前。

普通專有名詞前,江海山脈和群島。

國名普通需要加,代刊雜報朝機團。

東西南北吹樂器,姓氏複數表全家。

形容詞前表某類,最高級或序數前。

無冠詞(不加a, the)

冠詞有時無需加,普通人事物複數。

專有名詞要避免,物質抽象名詞前。

指示代詞及所有,季節月份星期幾。

街頭一人獨大時,節慶三餐除夕免

球類棋類等活動,程度形容最高級。

冠詞的常見用法歸納

一、冠詞概述
冠詞是虛詞,它不能單獨使用.只能附在一個名詞上說明這個名詞.冠詞分為不定冠a(an)詞和定冠詞the.不定冠詞一般表示泛指;定冠詞一般表示特指.

二、不定冠詞a(an)的用法

口訣:不定冠詞分子母,泛指某事物之一。


A. 不定冠詞a(an)用於單數可數名詞前.a用於輔音字母開始的詞前;an用於母音字母開始的詞前.如:a girl an English book
B. 不定冠詞用來表示類別,指某一類人或某一類事物中的一個(泛指).如:
His father is a doctor. I work in a middle school in Beijing.

口訣:
C. 不定冠詞用於單數可數名詞前,可以表示其全類(泛指).如:
An English teacher teaches the students how to learn English.

三、定冠詞the的用法

* 定冠提過人事物
① 表示上文提到過的人或事物.
如:He bought an English-Chinese dictionary this morning. The dictionary is very good.

* 也表整體或類別
② 用於單數可數名詞前,表示整體或類別 .(ps: 尤其指一群特別的事物)
如:The panda is a rare animal.
此句等於:A panda is a rare animal. = Pandas are rare animals.

* 世上獨一無二事
③ 用來表示世界上獨一無二的事物.
如:the sun, the moon, the sky, the earth, the world

* 階級黨派名詞前
④ 用於表示階級,黨派的名詞前.
如:the Chinese Communist Party , the working class the proletariat 無產階級

* 普通專有名詞前
⑤ 常用于含有普通名詞或形容詞的專有名詞前.

* 江海山脈和群島
A. 用於許多江海,山脈,群島等名詞前:
The Yellow River The East Sea the Himalayas the Pacific Ocean

* 國名普通需要加
B. 用於由普通名詞構成的國名:
The People's Republic of China the United States

* 代刊雜報朝機團
C. 用於機關,團體,朝代,時代,報刊雜誌等名詞前:
the United Nations the State Council the Tang dynasty the People's Daily
the Summer Palace the Peace Hotel the British Museum

* 東西南北吹樂器
⑥ 用於表示方位的名詞前.
如:the east the southwest the middle the Far East on the left
⑦ 用於樂器名詞前,但中文拼音的樂器前不用冠詞.
如:play the piano play the violin play erhu

* 姓氏複數表全家
⑧ 用於複數的姓氏前,表示"兩夫婦"或"全家",在此情況下,這類名詞作複數對待.
如:When we got there, the Lius were waiting for us.
The Smiths watch TV every day.

* 形容詞前表某類

⑨ 用於某些形容詞或過去分詞前,表示一類人或事物.
如:the poor the rich the living the young
the wounded the oppressed the beautiful

*最高級或序數前
⑩ 用在形容詞的最高級前或序數詞前.
如:Shanghai is the biggest city in china.
After the game, the first thing they wanted to do was to take a hot bath.

四、零冠詞用法

* 冠詞有時無需加

* 某類人事物複數
① 表示某一類人或事物的複數名詞前,不用冠詞.
Now people are living a happy life. Trees are planted everywhere.


② 不含普通名詞的專有名詞,表示泛指的物質名詞和抽象名詞前,不用冠詞.
We are studying English. He is leaving for America this year.
It is pleasant to walk in soft snow. Love is always stronger than hatred.

* 指示代詞及所有
③ 名詞前有指示代詞,物主代詞,不定代詞或名詞所有格修飾,不用冠詞.
I like this picture better. Is that your book
Take their chairs away! I do not have any money on me.
As time went on, Einstein's theory proved to be correct.

* 季節月份星期幾
④ 季節,月份,星期等名詞前,一般不用冠詞.
She likes spring while I like summer. We have no classes on Saturday.
The Long March started in October 1934.

* 街頭一人獨大時
⑤ 表示只有一人擔任的職務,頭銜的名詞前,不用冠詞.
We have elected him our monitor.

* 節慶三餐非除夕
⑥ 三餐飯的名詞前,一般不用冠詞.
When do you have lunch After supper we usually take a walk.
⑦ 節假日等名詞前,不用冠詞.
Children all wear their best clothes on National Day.
People give gifts to each other on Christmas Day.
注意:在eve後有of短語則要加定冠詞:
on the eve of National Day on the eve of New Year's Day

* 球類棋類等活動
⑧ 球類和棋類運動的名詞前,不用冠詞.
play basketball / play chess

* 程度形容最高級
⑨ 作表語用表示程度的形容詞最高級前,不用冠詞.
Your help was most timely. This method is most effective.
注意:如果有比較範圍,形容詞最高級前必須加定冠詞:
Of all methods, this is the most effective.


⑩ 在某些固定片語裏,名詞前不用冠詞.
on foot / by train/ boat / plane... in fact / as a matter of fact
in class/ in church /in danger /in hospital/ in town
in bed /at home /at school/ at daybreak/ at sunrise
at dusk/ at sunset /at night/ at noon /go to school
go to class /go to bed/ from morning/ till night/ from victory to victory
from door to door

五、注意事項
① 當man作人類講時,用零冠詞. Man will conquer nature.
② 某些抽象名詞具體化時是可數名詞,其前可加a.surprise, fire, joy,
He is a success as a teacher. Long Jing is a famous tea in China.
③ a用於姓氏前表示某個只知道名字而不不熟悉的人.
A Mr Liu is waiting to see you outside.
④ 在某些句型中可加a
It is a pity that you have missed the chance.
It is a shame / a pleasure / a honour for sb. to do sth.
⑤ word 作消息講時,用零冠詞. Word came that he would go abroad.

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